App help information

This page is a copy of the help provided within the LineSmarts app

 

Screen List

  1. Photos
  2. Subscription
  3. Calibration
  4. Conductors
  5. Conductor Parameters
  6. Loadcase Parameters
  7. Reporting
  8. Span Info
  9. Support Measurement
  10. Catenaries
  11. Catenary Info
  12. General Options
  13. Ground Clearances
  14. Location
  15. Locations
  16. Line Environment
  17. Tree Extent Point
  18. Structure
  19. Vegetation
  20. Tree

 


1. Photos Screen

The Photos screen lists the images captured by LineSmarts. Information for each photo is displayed. In all cases the date and time the photo was recorded is displayed. If the photo has been analysed for the span length the result will be shown in meters. The number of wires analysed is displayed as is the span name if the support names are specified by the user.

If you are just beginning to work with LineSmarts you can acquire the basics more rapidly by watching our video tutorials:

Part 1: Span info tutorial

Part 2: Ground profile tutorial

Part 3: Support measurement tutorial

Part 4: Catenaries tutorial

Part 5: Line Environment tutorial

Part 6: Ground clearance tutorial

Our youtube channel for other videos

Export

Selected measurement files can be exported either to harddrive or to email. The exported files have a "lsm" file extension and can be opened and edited on other devices that have LineSmarts installed. They can also be opened using regular image viewer applications to access the raw image. Those files exported to drive can be found under the Pictures folder.

Other controls which are provided include buttons on the top right of the screen for capturing; a new measurement photo (the + button), Help, Settings, Subscription, Import and About.

+

Once the + button is selected the camera is activated and the user must rotate the device to landscape so the white text at the bottom of the screen is at the bottom of the page. The exposure of the image can be modified using the slider bar on the right. To measure conductor tension take an image of the span including both poles in the image. To capture the image tap the screen gently. During image capture try to keep the device as steady as possible.

Import

LineSmarts measurement can be imported by selecting the import button. This will import all "lsm" files stored in the device Download folder which have not previously been imported.

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2. Subscription Screen

To access unrestricted use of LineSmarts please purchase a subscription. There are two LineSmarts subscription options to choose from, monthly and annual. The monthly subscription will change a fee monthly and an annual subscription will charge a fee yearly. Select your preferred subscription by pushing the monthly of yearly button, as appropriate. On selecting a purchasing button you will be taken to a Google Play purchasing window where the purchase can be completed.

To change subscription option select the alternative option button and complete the purchase in the Google Play purchasing window. The transfer to the new subscription option will occur at the end of the current billing cycle.

The subscription will continue until it is cancelled by the user. It can be cancelled from the My Apps screen in the Play Store app. When a subscription is cancelled, Google Play does not offer a refund for the current billing cycle. Instead, the user will have access to the cancelled subscription until the end of the current billing cycle, the end of the current month or year as applicable. Once the subscription cancellation takes effect measurements, conductor files and load case files, which are over and above the maximum allowances for non-subscription users, will be retained. They will be displayed in grey, however will not be accessible to the user until another subscription is purchased.

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3. Calibration Screen

Fx (px) and Fy (px)

These calibration parameters define the focal distance, or distance between the lens and the image sensor chip, in pixels. Users can manually adjust their calibration by adjusting Fx and Fy until correct results are returned for the height, span or width measurement of an object with known dimensions. Generally Fx and Fy can be assumed to be equal.

 

Cx (px) and Cy (px)

These calibration parameters define alignment offset between the centre of the lens and the centre of the image sensor chip, in pixels.

 

K1 (/px) and K2 (/px³)

These calibration parameters define the cameras barrel distortion characteristics.

 

P1 (/px) and P2 (/px)

These calibration parameters define the cameras tangential distortion characteristics. Tangential distortion occurs as a result of the lens and the image sensor not being oriented in the same plane.

 

Apply distortion correction

The user is given the choice of applying or not applying the distortion correction parameters. Distortion associated with tablet and smartphone cameras are not typically large and so in most cases calibration errors are greater than the originally device errors. Generally users are advised not to use the distortion correction however if image distortion is observed it may be appropriate to apply the distortion correction to see if it improves the analysis accuracy for their device.

 

Focus mode

The focus mode specifies how LineSmarts will focus. Users are advised to try out the different options to find the one that works best for their device. On most devices there are three possible focus modes; 'Continuous' (the default), 'Auto' and 'Infinity'. Some devices do not support all of these focus modes, in which cases only the available focus modes will be displayed.

'Continuous' focus constantly adjusts the focus to obtain the best possible focus. This may not be a good option if the camera focussing mechanism is slow or inaccurate.

'Infinity' focus may be a good option for some devices since it allows the focus to be fixed on distant objects, however on some devices the focus may not be as sharp using this option.

The 'Auto' focus option will cause the camera to focus at the moment the camera is triggered.

'Fixed' focus may be the only option on some devices that do not have autofocus capability. Generally where other options are available they are likely to provide better results.

 

Set default

The set default button is used to restore calibration to the default device settings.

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4. Conductor Parameters Screen

LineSmarts has been developed for compatibility with limit design methods, though it should be possible to comply with most design regimes using the variables provided. There are four limit state design conditions specified within LineSmarts; Ultimate, Damage, Serviceability and Vibration. These are used to correlate load cases with applicable material strength coefficients such as those defined in this library. These limit states broadly follow the definitions given in IEC 60826. For users who are not familiar with that document or are not conversant with the limit state method it is sufficient to realise that these categories may be used to associate a load case with a material strength factor.

 

Name

This field is used to provide a reference name for the conductor.

 

Conductor linear mass (kg/m)

The linear mass of the conductor in kg/m.

 

Cross-sectional area (mm²)

Cross-sectional area of total conductor load bearing material in mm².

 

Coeff. linear expansion (/°C)

The coefficient of linear expansion defines the change in conductor length affected by a temperature change of 1 degree.

 

Diameter (mm)

The outside diameter of the complete conductor in mm.

 

Calculated breaking load (kN)

The characteristic strength of the conductor, against which tensions can be compared to establish a maximum utilisation.

 

Modulus of elasticity (MPa)

The modulus of elasticity of the total conductor load bearing material in MPa.

 

Drag coefficient

The drag coefficient represents a unitless measure of conductor wind resistance. It is generally assumed to be 1.0 but may vary between 0.8 and 1.2 or beyond.

 

Ultimate limit (%UTS)

The Ultimate limit, or failure limit, is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design under ultimate design loading.

 

Damage limit (%UTS)

The Damage limit is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design to a damage limit, the point at which the conductor may sustain permanent damage that affects the utility or durability of the conductor (eg permanent conductor stretch) but not result in failure.

 

Vibration limit (%UTS)

The Vibration limit is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design to a vibration limit.

 

Serviceability limit (%UTS)

The Serviceability limit is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design to a serviceability limit, the point at which the conductor no longer adequately performs its intended function (eg clearances are not longer maintained), but does not result in permanent damage. This limit arguably should not be included as a strength factor and probably will not be used with conductor, as technically it is synonymous with the damage limit (though it has been defined slightly differently here). The Serviceability and Damage limits have been separately defined in LineSmarts to add flexibility to the load case groupings, so the option to use the serviceability limit is there if required.

 

Stranding and wire diameter

The stranding and wire diameter field uses the format (number of outer strands)/(diameter of outer strands)-(number of strength strands)/(diameter of strength strands)

 

Description

This field is a text description of the conductor type.

 

Type

The Type field contains information relating to the conductor type (eg AAC, AAAC, ACSR, ACCC etc) and material alloy designations

 

Standard

This field should be used to specify the applicable conductor standard

 

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5. Conductors Screen

Available conductors

The Available conductor folder contains a list of conductors which is presented to the user while performing a conductor measurement. Adding conductor files to this folder adds the conductor or conductors to the available conductor list. Removing conductors from the available conductor list will not cause the original conductor file to be deleted.

 

 

Standard conductors

The standard conductors contain folders of conductor files predefined within LineSmarts in accordance with various standards. Only a small number of standards are currently covered. Users are welcome to submit requests for LineSmarts to predefine conductors for other standards by emailing info@linesmarts.com. LineSmarts has made every effort that the parameters within these conductor files are correct, however it is recommended that users independently verify the conductor parameters within the files before using them. In particular, users should confirm that the specified material strength factors and drag coefficients settings accord with the users requirements. Files and folders cannot be added into the standard conductor folder, however individual files and folders may be deleted. Files may be modified by the user however users should take care if doing this as there will be no means to identify those files which have been modified since the original download.

 

User defined conductors

Users can specify their own conductors within the user defined conductor folder.

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6. Loadcase Parameters Screen

LineSmarts allows the analysis of measured assets under user defined load cases. These load cases are defined under the Settings/Loadcase parameters screen. The user can define as many load cases as they like. The load cases are optimised for defining load cases for limit state design, however users should be able to define most load case regimes using the available parameters. Please let us know at info@linesmarts.com if you are unable to do so, we will try to accommodate alternative design methods.

 

Name

This field is used to provide a reference name for the load case.

 

Temperature (°C)

The associated conductor temperature for the load case in degrees centigrade.

 

Wind speed (m/s), Wind pressure (Pa)

Users can specify either wind speed in m/s or wind pressure in Pascals, and LineSmarts will calculate the other parameter using the equation Wind pressure = 1.2kg/m³ x 0.5 x Wind speed².

 

Radial ice thickness (mm)

The radial ice thickness is the millimetres radius of ice on the conductor measured from the surface of the conductor to the surface of the ice. This parameter is used to calculate the mass of ice loading and the presented wind area for the ice covered conductor.

 

Ice density (kg/m³)

The density of ice used to calculate the mass of ice loading. The default ice density is 700 kg/m³.

 

Radial snow thickness (mm)

The radial snow thickness is the millimetres radius of snow on the conductor measured from the surface of the conductor to the surface of the snow. This parameter is used to calculate the mass of snow loading and the presented wind area for the snow covered conductor.

 

Snow density (kg/m³)

The density of Snow used to calculate the mass of Snow loading. The default snow density is 400 kg/m³.

 

Snow/Ice drag coefficient

This coefficient can be used to adjust the aerodynamic drag for conductor surfaces modified by snow or ice build up.

 

Conductor weight force load multiplier

This factor serves to modify the conductor weight force used in the calculation of conductor tension, sags and structure attachment loads. Factors above 1 will increase the load applied and factors below 1 will decrease it.

 

Tension load multiplier

The tension load multiplier is a factor which is used to adjust the calculated conductor tension for the load case. This adjustment affects the calculated conductor utilisation and structure attachment loads.

 

Limit state load type

There are four limit state load types defined; Ultimate, Damage, Serviceability and Vibration. These are used to correlate load cases with applicable material strength coefficients, such as those defined in the conductor library. These limit states broadly follow the definitions given in IEC 60826, the international standard for "Design criteria of Overhead transmission lines". For users who are not familiar with that document or are not conversant with the limit state method it is sufficient to realise that these categories may be used to associate a load case with a material strength factor.

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7. Reporting Screen

Image export size

Change the image export size to control the resolution of the image file created when generating a report. The default Reduced resolution option will create a file which is approximately 500kB in size. Reduced resolution reports are likely to have some decrease in image quality as a result of file compression. A full resolution image will use the maximum resolution image available to the device camera when creating the report image. The file may be quite large. This option is only available on the paid version of LineSmarts.

 

Show user details on reports

When the 'Show user details on reports' checkbox is checked the user details, including the 'Operator name', 'Organisation' and 'Contact details', are displayed if available.

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8. Span Info Screen

Left support range (m)

The distance measured to the support on the left hand side of the image. Generally the range will be recorded using a laser range finder. When the value is shown in blue italics this indicates that the displayed value has been calculated based on changes to the support positions made in the Locations window.

 

Right support range (m)

The distance measured to the support on the right hand side of the image. Generally the range will be recorded using a laser range finder. When the value is shown in blue italics this indicates that the displayed value has been calculated based on changes to the support positions made in the Locations window.

 

Horizontal range input

Professional grade laser range finders allow the output of actual or horizontal range measurements. LineSmarts allows the user to input both. LineSmarts defaults to 'Horizontal' range input. Generally inputting the horizontal range will be easier for the user because when selecting the support in the image, provided the support is vertical, any point on the support can be selected. If 'Inclineds' type is selected the range inputs will represent the direct range measurement. In this case the point on the support measured using the laser range finder will need to be selected in the image.

 

Left support ID

An identifier for the left-hand pole or support.

 

Right support ID

An identifier for the right-hand pole or support.

 

Notes

This field can be used to record notes about a photo or measurement. This might include the name of the person taking the photo, the address the observed asset condition, or any other useful information.

 

Surveyed temperature (°C)

The surveyed temperature field is used to record the temperature of the conductor at the time of survey. Actual conductor temperature is a function of many parameters including ambient air temperature, solar radiation, electrical current, conductor resistance, conductor emissivity, conductor absorptivity and wind. In the absence of this detailed information or the means to calculate the conductor temperature, for the assessment of clearances it is generally conservative to adopt the ambient air temperature as the conductor temperature. Even a slight breeze is very effective at cooling conductors so if the user is concerned to establish an accurate conductor temperature the measurement should either be taken while the line is dead and without sun or while a slight breeze is present. The surveyed temperature should always be recorded at the time of survey if it is anticipated that assessment of load cases might be required. The Surveyed temperature recorded on the Span info page forms the default temperature for the conductor catenaries calculated from the photo.

 

Support location window

In this window the user is required to position a cross-hairs over the left and right hand poles. The user can pinch to zoom in to accurately position the cross-hairs at the centre of the support (typically a pole). LineSmarts is set to initially locate the left support. Once the left support is located the right support button at the upper right of the screen should be selected to allow identification of the second pole. It is good practice to select the right support button prior to panning across to the right support since otherwise the user risks accidentally changing the left support location selection. Once both poles are selected use the back arrow at the top left of the screen to navigate back to the Support data page. Navigating back to the Support information page will automatically calculate the span.

 

Span (m)

This field shows the calculated span distance.

 

Support info image

Once the span is calculated the image will display vertical blue line that show the calculated vertical orientation at the pole locations. Discrepancy between the pole orientation and the blue lines may indicate either that the pole is leaning or that the device incorrectly recorded its orientation. An incorrect device orientation may the result of movement during the photo capture or errors in the device calibration. Clicking on the photo will allow the user to zoom in on the image and explore it in more detail. Clicking the image again will bring horizontal red lines into the view. If there is an error in the device orientation record the red lines will not appear horizontal. These horizontal red lines are sensitive to orientation error so if they appear horizontal the device orientation will be accurate. Clicking the image again will remove the lines from the view.

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9. Support Measurement Screen

The support measurement tool allows users measure physical dimensions of a power pole or other type of support structure. It measures the slope, horizontal distance, vertical distance and direct distance between user defined points. The tool can be used to measure any number of things including, pole lean, pole width or diameter, pole height, attachment height, height between cross-arms, cross-arm width, equipment dimensions and phase spacing. The measurements are based on the assumption that the photo has been taken at right angles to the direction of the support lean and the horizontal dimension being measured if applicable. For example if a cross-arm width is to be measured accurately the cross-arm must be square on to the observer.

The support measurement tool allows measurements to be made at the left and/or right supports in accordance with the support range, support ID and support locations inputted in the Support info page. Given the requirement that the image must be taken at right angles to the slope and the cross-arm, users should consider whether it is appropriate to measure both supports from the same photo. Sometimes it may be necessary to take separate photos of each support to make accurate support measurements.

The distance measurements require that the support range and locations are defined on the Support info selected page. The calculations will not be performed otherwise. Only the support lean calculation can be completed without the range being defined.

 

Locate support points

Tap image to define two points between which you wish to measure. Selection of the two points can be made by alternating between the buttons for Point A and Point B on the top right of the window. Once the points have been defined select the back button on the top right to return to the support measurement window.

 

ID

The support identification reference is taken from the field defined in the Support info window.

 

Length

The two dimensional length, on the vertical plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Vertical length

The vertical length between Point A and Point B.

 

Horizontal length

The horizontal length, in the plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Lean

The angle from the vertical direction of the line between Point A and Point B on the plane at right angles to the observer.

 

Other controls

Buttons are provided on the top right of the screen are for help and result export. If the export button is selected it allows the user to create a photo with overlain results which may either be saved to the device hard-drive or sent via email.

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10. Catenaries Screen

The Catenaries page summarises and displays all wire measurements for the span being assessed. When the page is opened for the first time for a span there will be no catenary measurements. Select the plus button on the top right of the screen to add catenary measurements.

 

Results reported

The Results reported drop-down menu allows the user to select the type of information that will be displayed for the wire measurements. If the "Load cases" option is selected the user can choose to display the position and information relating to specific load cases. If the "Maximums" option is selected users can choose from several parameters for which LineSmarts will identify the most extreme load case and the associated result.

 

Analysis type

This field only appears when "Maximums" is selected in the Results reported field. The drop-down menu allows the user to select from several conductor parameters. For the selected conductor parameter, the controlling load case and associated extreme value is displayed for the wires under the wires section. Also the position of the conductor under critical load case is displayed in the image.

 

Load case

This field only appears when "Load cases" is selected in the Results reported field. The drop-down menu allows the user to select from the Surveyed option and the user specified load cases entered under Settings/Loadcase parameters. The load case selected determines which results are displayed in the wires section and the position of the wires drawn over the image. The wires section summarises the Utilisation, Horizontal tension and Maximum sag values for the selected load case. The Surveyed load case reflects the results for the measured conductor.

 

Wires

The wires section lists the wire tension measurements in the order created. Each wire is given a unique colour which correlates with the results in the Wires section. Select a record to open the applicable Catenary info page for modification of the measurement or to access further results.

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11. Catenary Info Screen

Attachment offset (m)

For accurate results it is helpful to record the attachment horizontal offset distance from the support centre in the direction perpendicular to the line. The offset distance is not so critical for photos taken at right angles to the span but as the angle between the camera and line orientation reduced the offset becomes increasingly important for maintaining accuracy. Offsets in the direction towards the observer are negative and those away from the observer are positive.

 

Surveyed temperature (°C)

The surveyed temperature field is used to record the temperature of the conductor at the time of survey. Actual conductor temperature is a function of many parameters including ambient air temperature, solar radiation, electrical current, conductor resistance, conductor emissivity, conductor absorptivity and wind. In the absence of this detailed information or the means to calculate the conductor temperature, for the assessment of clearances, it is generally conservative to adopt the ambient air temperature as the conductor temperature. However if the conductor temperature can be established it may be desirable to input different surveyed temperatures for different conductors. The Surveyed temperature field on the Span info page is used to establish the default temperature for the catenaries. The values on the Catenary info page can be used to individually specify as-surveyed conductor temperatures if required.

 

Notes

This field can be used to record notes about a photo or measurement. This might include the observed conductor type or condition, or any other useful information.

 

Conductor name

Selecting the appropriate conductor allows calculation of the conductor tension. This drop-down list includes the conductors on the Available conductors list under Conductor Parameters settings menu. If the appropriate conductor cannot be found on the list, the conductor and its characteristic parameters can be created or located in the Conductor Parameters library and then added to the available conductors list.

 

Locate catenary

Tap image to open a window that enables the user to select positions on the image to define the catenary of the target conductor.

 

Catenary location window

In this window the user is required to position a cross-hairs over the targeted conductor at three locations; ideally at the far left of the span, at the far right and somewhere in the vicinity of the span centre. This enables LineSmarts to calculate the catenary position. In some cases the view of the conductor is obscured by something in the foreground or by difficulty resolving the conductor against the back ground. Under these circumstances the user should select conductors at locations where their positions can be resolved, while trying to stay as close to the ideal span positions as possible. The user should pinch to zoom to accurately position the cross-hairs over the wire. LineSmarts is set to initially locate the left-most catenary position. Once the left position is located the centre and then right button at the upper right of the screen should be selected to allow identification of the other catenary points. Once all catenary points are selected use the back arrow at the top left of the screen to navigate back to the Catenary info page. Navigating back to the Catenary information page will automatically calculate the conductor sag and tension.

 

Catenary info image

Once the catenary properties are calculated the image will display red lines showing the selected conductor and the straight line between support attachment points. A vertical blue line is used to show the mid-span position. Clicking on the photo will allow the user to zoom in on the image and explore it in more detail. Clicking the image again will remove the lines from the view.

 

Load case

This drop-down menu allows the user to select from the Surveyed option and the user specified load cases entered under Settings/Loadcase parameters. The load case selected determines which results are displayed and the position of the wires drawn over the image. The Surveyed load case reflects results for the measured conductor.

 

Catenary constant (m)

Once the catenary properties are calculated the resulting catenary constant will be displayed. The catenary constant is result of the horizontal conductor tension divided by the linear applied force.

 

Horizontal force (N)

The horizontal component of the conductor tension.

 

Axial tension left support (N)

The conductor tension at the left support.

 

Vertical force left support (N)

The vertical component of the conductor tension at the left support.

 

Axial tension right support (N)

The conductor tension at the right support.

 

Vertical force right support (N)

The vertical component of the conductor tension at the right support.

 

Design tension (m)

The design tension is calculated as the maximum tension of the conductor over the length of the span, multiplied by the associated limit state tension load factor. Note that the tension load factor is taken as 1.0 for the Surveyed case.

 

Conductor utilisation (%)

The design tension divided the applicable conductor strength reduction factor and the conductor ultimate tensile strength. The conductor utilisation provides a measurement for the design performance of the measured conductor.

 

Sag in span (m)

The conductor sag at the maximum sag position.

 

Midspan blowout (m)

The blowout distance of the conductor under wind at midspan. Note that this result will be zero if a load case with no wind is applied.

 

Δ sag (m)

The calculated change in maximum sag between that surveyed and under the user specified load case.

 

Conductor length (m)

The calculated length of conductor in the span.

Attachment height difference (m)

This field shows the difference in height of the attachments at either end of the span.

 

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12. General Options Screen

Wire recognition

Note that this option is only available if no wires have already been defined. To automatically identify wires select the wand icon on the top right of the screen, bringing up the automated wire selection page. Then select the touch icon and swipe vertically across all wires to be identified. The software will then attempt to automatically recognise the catenaries in the image. If the identified wires are correct then create the catenaries by selecting the back button on the top left. If only some wires have been accurately identified either the cross can be selected to delete the identified wires and try again or the identified wires can be created by going back and the remaining catenaries can be added manually.

 

Blowout direction

For the purposes of calculating wind load and blowout LineSmarts assumes wind to be acting in the direction perpendicular to the span. The resulting conductor blowout can be displayed for wind blowing in either direction perdendicular to the span. Select Left to display conductor being blown to the left, Right to display conductor blown to the right, or Both to show the conductor blown in both directions.

 

Recalculate everything

Selecting the recalculate everything button causes a recalulation of all measurements and analyses on the device. This recalculation may take a very long time if there are lots of measurements. Usually there should be no reason to recalulate everything, it should generally only be used for debugging purposes.

 

Show help prompts

LineSmarts provides help messages to assist users who are unfamiliar with LineSmarts, with working through its features at a basic level. The messages can be disabled individually. Uncheck this parameter to prevent display of all help message boxes. Check it back to reinitiate the display of all help message boxes.

 

WiFi only aerial image download

Downloading aerial images for the location maps will consume a significant amount of data. If you are managing a limited mobile data budget you may wish to check this option to prevent LineSmarts from downloading the images over your mobile data connection.

 

Use debug mode

Selecting debug mode currently enables the drawing of a yellow horizontal line perpendicular to the span and some reprojection crosses. It is only intended to assist with debugging the app in some circumstances. Users are unlikely to need to enable this function.

 

Unit system

Select from between Metric and US Imperial to set the desired unit system.

 

Notify of upgrades

LineSmarts is able to notify users when the app is started if a more recent verion is available on the Google Play Store. Check the "Do not show this message again" check box to stop the notifications from appearing. Uncheck the box to allow the messages to be provided.

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13. Ground Clearances Screen

Loadcase

The load case drop-down menu allows the specification of loadcases for the calculation of ground clearances.

Selecting the "Minimum clearance" setting will direct the analysis to find the user-defined loadcase which produces the minimum ground clearance.

Selecting the "Surveyed" setting identifies clearances to the conductor whilst in the position in which it was measured by LineSmarts.

Selecting a specific loadcase will return the clearances associated with that loadcase.

 

Distance to left pole

The distance to left pole identifies the distance from the left support to the minimum ground clearance span location.

 

Horizontal Sag

The horizontal sag result indicates conductor sag at the minimum clearance location, in the horizontal direction.

 

Measurement position

The 'Measurement position' drop-down can be set as 'Manual' or 'Minimum'.

If it is set on 'Manual' the ground clearances will be measured at the user-specified span location.

If it is set on 'Minimum' the ground clearance will be calculated in the span location where the clearance is the least.

 

Ground clearance

The ground clearance result is the minimum vertical distance between the ground and the closest conductor.

 

Governing loadcase

The governing loadcase field identifies the loadcase which results in the minimum ground clearance.

 

Wires considered

The wires considered drop-down menu allows selection of specific conductors for measurement, or can allow all conductors to be considered, to find the minimum ground clearance.

 

Conductor

The conductor field in the results section identifies the minimum clearance conductor.

 

Vertical Sag

The vertical sag result indicates conductor sag at the minimum clearance location, in the vertical direction.

 

Sag

The sag result indicates the two dimensional conductor sag at the minimum clearance location.

 

Distance to right pole

The distance to right pole identifies the distance from the right support to the minimum ground clearance span location.

 

Select measurement position

Select the image to manually identify the position in the span where ground clearance measurements should be calculated.

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14. Location Screen

Markers on the aerial image show the positions of the observer (yellow), the left support (red) and the right support (blue), if they are known. Tap on the image to navigate within it or to modify the positions.

 

Longitude

The longitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Latitude

The latitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Altitude

The altitude is specified as distance above the WGS 84 reference ellipsoid.

 

Span heading

This field shows the orientation of the span in degrees from geographic north. The measurement relies on a compass and GPS position being recorded, so the field will be blank if either measurement cannot not be obtained. The measurement cannot be performed if the device is missing compass or GPS hardware. The GPS reading may fail if it unable to resolve a fix on the available satellites.

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15. Locations Screen

On this screen markers on the aerial image show the positions of the observer (yellow), the left support (red) and the right support (blue), if they are known. The image can be panned with a swiping movement and can be zoomed or rotated using multitouch input.

The positions of the markers may not always be accurate. Generally this will occur because of inaccuracy in the gps location or compass bearing measurement. The gps location and the compass orientation can be adjusted. To adjust the gps location long press on the observer (on the supports will also work) and move the marker to the correct location. To adjust the orientation select the rotation icon at the top of the screen and then drag the yellow line around until the supports are at the correct orientation.

Inaccuraciy of support location may also occur if the user has not inputted the correct support ranges, has incorrectly identified the supports in the image, or if the LineSmarts image calibration is not accurate.

Markers may not be displayed; if the gps location was not recorded; the user has not specified the support range; and/or the user has not specified the position of the support within the image. If only the support range has been inputted a semi-circle with a radius equal to range is displayed on the aerial image to indicate potential support locations. This line is red or blue respectively for the left and right supports. If only the support position in the image has been inputted, a line is displayed on the aerial image in the direction of the support, to indicate potential support locations. This line is red or blue respectively for the left and right supports. If neither the support position in the image nor the support range has been specified no information will be displayed for that support. In these instances the markers can be added by selecting the plus icon at the top of the window and then tapping the support position within the image. By default the new marker locations will remain consistent with user specified ranges and support locations in the image. These default settings that force the marker positions to remain consistent with the other infromation inputted by the user can be modified using the lock settings which are found under the menu in the top right corner.

The 'Lock left distance' and 'Lock right distance' settings will automatically be enabled if the user has inputted a range to the support. Enabling this setting restricts the positions available for the left to those which are a radius around the observer equal to the specified range. Unlocking this setting will allow the marker for the support to be moved any distance from the observer. Adjusting that distance will change the range displayed on the span info screen, the calculated span distance, and other results influenced by the change in span geometry.

The 'Lock left heading' and 'Lock right heading' settings will automatically be enabled if the user has specified the position of the support in the span image. Enabling this setting restricts the positions available for the support to those which are on a line in the specified direction. Unlocking this setting will allow the marker for the support to be moved in any direction. Adjusting the heading will change the selected support position within the span image, the calculated span distance, and other results influenced by the change in span geometry.

'Reset Locations' — selecting the Reset Locations options will restore the support locations to ones which represent the original device position and orientation, and user inputted support ranges and positions within the image.

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16. Line Environment Screen

The line environment feature allows the calculation of clearances from conductors to items in the line environment.

 

Button '+'

Select the '+' button at the top of the screen to create a new line environment item. Once the '+' button has been selected the user is asked to choose a type of line environment item.

Tree items consist of a base point and one or more vegetation points. The tree items are considered for both falling tree and clearance measurements.

Vegetation and Structure item types are individual points that are only considered for the calculation of clearances. They are not considered in falling tree calculations.

 

Results reported

The results reported drop-down menu can either be set as "Clearance" or "Falling tree".

When the "Clearance" setting is selected the results are shown for the smallest distance between the closest conductor and the items identified in the line environment.

When the "Falling tree" setting is selected the clearances returned indicate the worst case encroachment of trees falling in a direction perpendicular to the line about the corresponding tree base point, while conductors are in the as surveyed position. When negative wire clearance values are returned this indicates that the falling tree would extend past the wire.

 

Wires considered

The wires considered drop-down menu allows selection of specific conductors for measurement to, or can allow all conductors to be considered when finding the minimum clearance.

 

Load case

The load case drop-down menu allows specification of load cases to be considered in the calculation of line environment clearances.

Selecting the "Minimum clearance" setting will direct the analysis to find the user defined loadcase which produces the minimum clearance.

Selecting the "Surveyed" setting identifies clearances to the conductor whilst in the position measured by LineSmarts. Selecting a specific loadcase will return the clearances associated with that loadcase.

 

Items

Results are shown at the bottom of the page for the user specified line environment items. Select the items for more detailed results and to edit the items.

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17. Tree Extent Point Screen

Locate tree extent point

To locate the tree extent point touch the image and then select the position of the tree part being measured on the image.

 

Tree extent D. distance

The tree extent D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the tree which is being measured for clearance. Specification of this distance is optional, if it is not entered it is assumed to be the same as the base point distance.

 

Tree extent H. distance

The tree extent H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the tree which is being measured for clearance. Specification of this distance is optional, if it is not entered it is assumed to be the same as the base point distance.

 

Wire clearance

The wire clearance result is the distance between the tree extent point and the wire at its closest position.

 

Extension from base

The extension from base is the distance between the tree base point and the tree extent point.

 

Falling tree

The falling tree result is the distance from the tree extent point to the wire in the surveyed position if the tree falls towards the line about its base point. This result will be negative if the tree extent point falls beyond the wire, suggesting that the falling tree could strike the wire.

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18. Structure Screen

Structure D. distance

The structure D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the structure which is being measured for clearance.

 

Structure clearance

The structure clearance result is the distance between the structure point and the wire at its closest position.

 

Locate structure point

To locate the structure point touch the image and then select the part of the structure being measured.

 

Structure H. distance

The structure H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the structure which is being measured for clearance.

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19. Vegetation Screen

Vegetation D. distance

The vegetation D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the vegetation which is being measured for clearance.

 

Vegetation clearance

The vegetation clearance result is the distance between the vegetation point and the wire at its closest position.

 

Locate vegetation point

To locate the vegetation point touch the image and then select the part of the vegetation being measured on the image.

 

Vegetation H. distance

The vegetation H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the vegetation which is being measured for clearance.

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20. Tree Screen

Governing wire

The governing wire is the conductor that has the least clearance to the tree.

 

Locate base point

Select the image to locate the base of the tree being measured. The located point is assumed to be the pivot about which a falling tree will rotate.

 

Tree extent points

A tree extent point is an position in the tree, typically high up the tree or a part of the tree close to the wires, for which clearance is to be calculated. Select the points for more detailed results and to edit.

 

Governing loadcase

The governing loadcase is the loadcase that results in the least clearance between the line and the tree.

 

Base H. distance

The Base H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to the base of the tree being measured.

 

Base D. distance

The Base D. distance is the direct distance, or slope distance, from the observer to the base of the tree being measured.

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