App help information

This page is a copy of the help provided within the LineSmarts app

 

Screen List

  1. Photos
  2. Conductor library
  3. Conductor library
  4. Survey info
  5. Catenary info
  6. Camera settings
  7. Report options
  8. General options
  9. Catenaries
  10. Loadcase Parameters
  11. Support exclusion zone type
  12. Conductor exclusion zone type
  13. Organisation Subscription
  14. Individual Subscription
  15. Ground clearances
  16. Line environment
  17. Tree
  18. Tree extent point
  19. Structure point
  20. Vegetation
  21. Building
  22. Location
  23. Locations
  24. Experience
  25. Support measurement
  26. Support exclusion zones
  27. Support exclusion zone
  28. Conductor exclusion zone

 


Photos

If you are just beginning to work with LineSmarts, and you have purchased an organisational subscription, you can acquire the basics most rapidly by working through the information available on the experience page. The experience page can be accessed via the rossette icon on the Photo page's top task bar.

For those who don't have an organisational subscription the video links below provide LineSmarts video tutorials:

Part 1: Basic tutorial video

Part 2: Measurement capture tutorial video

Part 3: Span info tutorial

Part 4: Support measurement tutorial

Part 5: Catenaries tutorial

Part 6: Ground profile tutorial

Part 7: Ground clearance tutorial

Part 8: Line Environment tutorial

Part 9: Locations tutorial

Part 10: Camera calibration tutorial

Part 11: Device calibration tutorial

Part 12: Loadcase library tutorial

Part 13: Conductor library tutorial

Part 14: Exporting tutorial

Our youtube channel for other videos

The Photos screen lists the images captured by LineSmarts. Information for each photo is displayed. In all cases the date and time the photo was recorded is displayed. If the photo has been analysed for the span length the result will be shown in meters. The number of wires analysed is displayed as is the span name if the support names are specified by the user.

New items may be added by selecting the plus symbol on the top right of the screen.

Pushing and holding down one of the items pops up a window of actions which can be performed. Actions can be performed on several items at once by selecting the tickboxes for multiple items prior to performing the long press.

The actions include:

Sort: allows items and folders to be sorted by date created or alphabetically.

Create folder: selecting this option creates a folder which can be used for organising items. Note that folders can be created within folders to make sub-folders.

Rename folder: only appears if a folder has been selected. Allows the folder to be renamed.

Delete: allows items or folders to be deleted. If folders are being deleted all the contents of the folder will also be deleted.

Move to: allows items or folders to be moved. If folders are being moved the contents of the folder will also be moved.

Select all: selects all elements on current screen.

Unselect all: unselects all elements on current screen.

Export to JPG/LSM format: selected measurement files can be exported either to harddrive or to email. The exported files have a jpg file extension and can be opened and edited on other devices that have LineSmarts installed. They can also be opened using regular image viewer applications to access the raw image. Those files exported to drive can be found under the LineSmarts folder.

Export to CSV format: Use the Export to CSV Format tool to export the results from one or more LineSmarts measurements as a CSV data file, a format which can be opened by MS Excel. The export automatically creates two files of information about the selected measurement/s, one containing data about the supports, and the other about the spans and contained catenaries.

Other controls which are provided include buttons on the top right of the screen for capturing; a new measurement photo (the + button), Help, Settings, Subscription, Import and About.

+: Once the + button is selected the camera is activated and the user must rotate the device to landscape so the white text at the bottom of the screen is at the bottom of the page. The exposure of the image can be modified using the slider bar on the right. To measure conductor tension take an image of the span including both poles in the image. To capture the image tap the screen gently. During image capture try to keep the device as steady as possible.

Import: LineSmarts measurement can be imported by selecting the import button. This will import all jpg files stored in the device LineSmarts folder which have not previously been imported.

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Conductor library

LineSmarts has been developed for compatibility with limit design methods, though it should be possible to comply with most design regimes using the variables provided. There are four limit state design conditions specified within LineSmarts; Ultimate, Damage, Serviceability and Vibration. These are used to correlate load cases with applicable material strength coefficients such as those defined in this library. These limit states broadly follow the definitions given in IEC 60826. For users who are not familiar with that document or are not conversant with the limit state method it is sufficient to realise that these categories may be used to associate a load case with a material strength factor.

Name

This field is used to provide a reference name for the conductor.

 

Conductor linear mass (kg/m)

The linear mass of the conductor.

 

Cross-sectional area (mm²)

Cross-sectional area of total conductor load bearing material.

 

Coeff. linear expansion (/°C)

The coefficient of linear expansion defines the change in conductor length affected by a temperature change of 1 degree.

 

Diameter (mm)

The outside diameter of the complete conductor.

 

Calculated breaking load (kN)

The characteristic strength of the conductor, against which tensions can be compared to establish a maximum utilisation.

 

Modulus of elasticity (MPa)

The modulus of elasticity of the total conductor load bearing material.

 

Drag coefficient

The drag coefficient represents a unitless measure of conductor wind resistance. It is generally assumed to be 1.0 but may vary between 0.8 and 1.2 or beyond.

 

Ultimate limit (%UTS)

The Ultimate limit, or failure limit, is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design under ultimate design loading.

 

Damage limit (%UTS)

The Damage limit is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design to a damage limit, the point at which the conductor may sustain permanent damage that affects the utility or durability of the conductor (eg permanent conductor stretch) but not result in failure.

 

Serviceability limit (%UTS)

The Serviceability limit is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design to a serviceability limit, the point at which the conductor no longer adequately performs its intended function (eg clearances are not longer maintained), but does not result in permanent damage. This limit arguably should not be included as a strength factor and probably will not be used with conductor, as technically it is synonymous with the damage limit (though it has been defined slightly differently here). The Serviceability and Damage limits have been separately defined in LineSmarts to add flexibility to the load case groupings, so the option to use the serviceability limit is there if required.

 

Vibration limit (%UTS)

The Vibration limit is the material strength factor, expressed as a percentage of the conductor ultimate tensile strength, which is applicable for conductor design to a vibration limit.

 

Sort index

The sort index number allows users to rank the order in which items are displayed. The default index number is 1000. Assign items with ascending or descenting sort index numbers in the desired order of item display.

 

Stranding and wire diameter (mm)

The stranding and wire diameter field uses the format (number of outer strands)/(diameter of outer strands)-(number of strength strands)/(diameter of strength strands)

 

Type

The Type field contains information relating to the conductor type (eg AAC, AAAC, ACSR, ACCC etc) and material alloy designations

 

Description

This field is a text description of the conductor type.

 

Standard

This field should be used to specify the applicable conductor standard

 

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Conductor library

Available conductors: the Available conductor folder contains a list of conductors which is presented to the user while performing a conductor measurement. Adding conductor files to this folder adds the conductor or conductors to the available conductor list. Removing conductors from the available conductor list will not cause the original conductor file to be deleted.

Standard conductors: the standard conductors contain folders of conductor files predefined within LineSmarts in accordance with various standards. Only a small number of standards are currently covered. Users are welcome to submit requests for LineSmarts to predefine conductors for other standards by emailing info@linesmarts.com. LineSmarts has made every effort that the parameters within these conductor files are correct, however it is recommended that users independently verify the conductor parameters within the files before using them. In particular, users should confirm that the specified material strength factors and drag coefficients settings accord with the users requirements. Files and folders cannot be added into the standard conductor folder, however individual files and folders may be deleted. Files may be modified by the user however users should take care if doing this as there will be no means to identify those files which have been modified since the original download.

User defined conductors: users can specify their own conductors within the user defined conductor folder.

New items may be added by selecting the plus symbol on the top right of the screen.

Pushing and holding down one of the items pops up a window of actions which can be performed. Actions can be performed on several items at once by selecting the tickboxes for multiple items prior to performing the long press.

The actions include:

Add to 'Available conductors': the available conductor list is the list of conductors which is presented to the user while performing a conductor measurement. Selecting this option adds the selected conductor or conductors to the available conductor list. Removing conductors from the available conductor list will not cause the original conductor file to be deleted.

Sort: allows items and folders to be sorted by date created or alphabetically, conductors can also be sorted by diameter or using the sort index number defined under conductor parameters.

Create folder: selecting this option creates a folder which can be used for organising items. Note that folders can be created within folders to make sub-folders.

Rename folder: only appears if a folder has been selected. Allows the folder to be renamed.

Delete: allows items or folders to be deleted. If folders are being deleted all the contents of the folder will also be deleted.

Move to: allows items or folders to be moved. If folders are being moved the contents of the folder will also be moved.

Select all: selects all elements on current screen.

Unselect all: unselects all elements on current screen.

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Survey info

Measurement type

Measurement type.

 

Left support range (m)

The distance measured to the support on the left hand side of the image. Generally the range will be recorded using a laser range finder. When the value is shown in blue italics this indicates that the displayed value has been calculated based on changes to the support positions made in the Locations window.

 

Right support range (m)

The distance measured to the support on the right hand side of the image. Generally the range will be recorded using a laser range finder. When the value is shown in blue italics this indicates that the displayed value has been calculated based on changes to the support positions made in the Locations window.

 

Left support ID

An identifier for the left-hand pole or support.

 

Right support ID

An identifier for the right-hand pole or support.

 

Span (m)

This field shows the calculated span distance.

 

Distance input type

Professional grade laser range finders allow the output of actual or horizontal range measurements. LineSmarts allows the user to input both. LineSmarts defaults to 'Horizontal' range input. Generally inputting the horizontal range will be easier for the user because when selecting the support in the image, provided the support is vertical, any point on the support can be selected. If 'Inclineds' type is selected the range inputs will represent the direct range measurement. In this case the point on the support measured using the laser range finder will need to be selected in the image.

 

Notes

This field can be used to record notes about a photo or measurement. This might include the name of the person taking the photo, the address the observed asset condition, or any other useful information.

 

Sort index

The sort index number allows users to rank the order in which items are displayed. The default index number is 1000. Assign items with ascending or descenting sort index numbers in the desired order of item display.

 

Surveyed temperature (°C)

The surveyed temperature field is used to record the temperature of the conductor at the time of survey. Actual conductor temperature is a function of many parameters including ambient air temperature, solar radiation, electrical current, conductor resistance, conductor emissivity, conductor absorptivity and wind. In the absence of this detailed information or the means to calculate the conductor temperature, for the assessment of clearances it is generally conservative to adopt the ambient air temperature as the conductor temperature. Even a slight breeze is very effective at cooling conductors so if the user is concerned to establish an accurate conductor temperature the measurement should either be taken while the line is dead and without sun or while a slight breeze is present. The surveyed temperature should always be recorded at the time of survey if it is anticipated that assessment of load cases might be required. The Surveyed temperature recorded on the Span info page forms the default temperature for the conductor catenaries calculated from the photo.

 

Locate supports

Tap image to open a window that enables the user to select the support positions on the image.

 

Support location window

In this window the user is required to position a cross-hairs over the left and right hand poles. The user can pinch to zoom in to accurately position the cross-hairs at the centre of the support (typically a pole). LineSmarts is set to initially locate the left support. Once the left support is located the right support button at the upper right of the screen should be selected to allow identification of the second pole. It is good practice to select the right support button prior to panning across to the right support since otherwise the user risks accidentally changing the left support location selection. Once both poles are selected use the back arrow at the top left of the screen to navigate back to the Support data page. Navigating back to the Support information page will automatically calculate the span.

 

Support info image

Once the span is calculated the image will display vertical blue line that show the calculated vertical orientation at the pole locations. Discrepancy between the pole orientation and the blue lines may indicate either that the pole is leaning or that the device incorrectly recorded its orientation. An incorrect device orientation may the result of movement during the photo capture or errors in the device calibration. Clicking on the photo will allow the user to zoom in on the image and explore it in more detail. Clicking the image again will bring horizontal red lines into the view. If there is an error in the device orientation record the red lines will not appear horizontal. These horizontal red lines are sensitive to orientation error so if they appear horizontal the device orientation will be accurate. Clicking the image again will remove the lines from the view.

 

Other controls

Buttons are provided on the top right of the screen are for help and result export. If the export button is selected it allows the user to create a photo with overlain results which may either be saved to the device hard-drive or sent via email.

 

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Catenary info

Attachment offset (m)

For accurate results it is helpful to record the attachment horizontal offset distance from the support centre in the direction perpendicular to the line. The offset distance is not so critical for photos taken at right angles to the span but as the angle between the camera and line orientation reduced the offset becomes increasingly important for maintaining accuracy. Offsets in the direction towards the observer are negative and those away from the observer are positive.

 

Surveyed temperature (°C)

The surveyed temperature field is used to record the temperature of the conductor at the time of survey. Actual conductor temperature is a function of many parameters including ambient air temperature, solar radiation, electrical current, conductor resistance, conductor emissivity, conductor absorptivity and wind. In the absence of this detailed information or the means to calculate the conductor temperature, for the assessment of clearances, it is generally conservative to adopt the ambient air temperature as the conductor temperature. However if the conductor temperature can be established it may be desirable to input different surveyed temperatures for different conductors. The Surveyed temperature field on the Span info page is used to establish the default temperature for the catenaries. The values on the Catenary info page can be used to individually specify as-surveyed conductor temperatures if required.

 

Notes

This field can be used to record notes about a photo or measurement. This might include the observed conductor type or condition, or any other useful information.

 

Conductor name

Selecting the appropriate conductor allows calculation of the conductor tension. This drop-down list includes the conductors on the Available conductors list under Conductor Parameters settings menu. If the appropriate conductor cannot be found on the list, the conductor and its characteristic parameters can be created or located in the Conductor Parameters library and then added to the available conductors list.

 

Locate catenary

Tap image to open a window that enables the user to select positions on the image to define the catenary of the target conductor.

 

Catenary location window

In this window the user is required to position a cross-hairs over the targeted conductor at three locations; ideally at the far left of the span, at the far right and somewhere in the vicinity of the span centre. This enables LineSmarts to calculate the catenary position. In some cases the view of the conductor is obscured by something in the foreground or by difficulty resolving the conductor against the back ground. Under these circumstances the user should select conductors at locations where their positions can be resolved, while trying to stay as close to the ideal span positions as possible. The user should pinch to zoom to accurately position the cross-hairs over the wire. LineSmarts is set to initially locate the left-most catenary position. Once the left position is located the centre and then right button at the upper right of the screen should be selected to allow identification of the other catenary points. Once all catenary points are selected use the back arrow at the top left of the screen to navigate back to the Catenary info page. Navigating back to the Catenary information page will automatically calculate the conductor sag and tension.

 

Catenary info image

Once the catenary properties are calculated the image will display red lines showing the selected conductor and the straight line between support attachment points. A vertical blue line is used to show the mid-span position. Clicking on the photo will allow the user to zoom in on the image and explore it in more detail. Clicking the image again will remove the lines from the view.

 

Load case

This drop-down menu allows the user to select from the Surveyed option and the user specified load cases entered under Settings/Loadcase parameters. The load case selected determines which results are displayed and the position of the wires drawn over the image. The Surveyed load case reflects results for the measured conductor.

 

Catenary constant (m)

Once the catenary properties are calculated the resulting catenary constant will be displayed. The catenary constant is result of the horizontal conductor tension divided by the linear applied force.

 

Horizontal force (N)

The horizontal component of the conductor tension.

 

%CBL (%)

The horizontal tension of the conductor divided by its calculated breaking load, expressed as a percentage.

 

Axial tension left support (N)

The conductor tension at the left support.

 

Vertical force left support (N)

The vertical component of the conductor tension at the left support.

 

Axial tension right support (N)

The conductor tension at the right support.

 

Vertical force right support (N)

The vertical component of the conductor tension at the right support.

 

Design tension (N)

The design tension is calculated as the maximum tension of the conductor over the length of the span, multiplied by the associated limit state tension load factor. Note that the tension load factor is taken as 1.0 for the Surveyed case.

 

Conductor utilisation (%)

The design tension divided the applicable conductor strength reduction factor and the conductor ultimate tensile strength. The conductor utilisation provides a measurement for the design performance of the measured conductor.

 

Sag in span (m)

The conductor sag at the maximum sag position.

 

Midspan blowout (m)

The blowout distance of the conductor under wind at midspan. Note that this result will be zero if a load case with no wind is applied.

 

Δ sag (m)

The calculated change in maximum sag between that surveyed and under the user specified load case.

 

Conductor length (m)

The calculated length of conductor in the span.

 

Attachment height difference (m)

This field shows the difference in height of the attachments at either end of the span.

 

Measured diameter (mm)

This is a prototype tool which remains in development and in most situations will not be sufficiently accurate to be useful. Please use with caution. To use select the conductor diameter tool on the top right of the catenary info screen. Then move the two lines displayed to the top and bottom of the conductor, selecting the lines using the A and B buttons. The easiest way to do this is to click and hold on the screen and then drag the line into position. The tool displays the measured conductor diameter on the top right of the screen.

 

Other controls

Buttons are provided on the top right of the screen are for help and result export. If the export button is selected it allows the user to create a photo with overlain results which may either be saved to the device hard-drive or sent via email.

 

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Camera settings

Focus mode

The focus mode specifies how LineSmarts will focus. Users are advised to try out the different options to find the one that works best for their device. On most devices there are three possible focus modes; 'Continuous' (the default), 'Auto' and 'Infinity'. Some devices do not support all of these focus modes, in which cases only the available focus modes will be displayed.

'Continuous' focus constantly adjusts the focus to obtain the best possible focus. This may not be a good option if the camera focussing mechanism is slow or inaccurate.

'Infinity' focus may be a good option for some devices since it allows the focus to be fixed on distant objects, however on some devices the focus may not be as sharp using this option.

The 'Auto' focus option will cause the camera to focus at the moment the camera is triggered.

'Fixed' focus may be the only option on some devices that do not have autofocus capability. Generally where other options are available they are likely to provide better results.

 

Fx (px)

These calibration parameters define the focal distance, or distance between the lens and the image sensor chip, in pixels. Users can manually adjust their calibration by adjusting Fx and Fy until correct results are returned for the height, span or width measurement of an object with known dimensions. Generally Fx and Fy can be assumed to be equal.

 

Fy (px)

These calibration parameters define the focal distance, or distance between the lens and the image sensor chip, in pixels. Users can manually adjust their calibration by adjusting Fx and Fy until correct results are returned for the height, span or width measurement of an object with known dimensions. Generally Fx and Fy can be assumed to be equal.

 

Cx (px)

These calibration parameters define alignment offset between the centre of the lens and the centre of the image sensor chip, in pixels.

 

Cy (px)

These calibration parameters define alignment offset between the centre of the lens and the centre of the image sensor chip, in pixels.

 

K1 (/px)

These calibration parameters define the cameras barrel distortion characteristics.

 

K2 (/px³)

These calibration parameters define the cameras barrel distortion characteristics.

 

P1 (/px)

These calibration parameters define the cameras tangential distortion characteristics. Tangential distortion occurs as a result of the lens and the image sensor not being oriented in the same plane.

 

P2 (/px)

These calibration parameters define the cameras tangential distortion characteristics. Tangential distortion occurs as a result of the lens and the image sensor not being oriented in the same plane.

 

Apply distortion correction

The user is given the choice of applying or not applying the distortion correction parameters. Distortion associated with tablet and smartphone cameras are not typically large and so in most cases calibration errors are greater than the originally device errors. Generally users are advised not to use the distortion correction however if image distortion is observed it may be appropriate to apply the distortion correction to see if it improves the analysis accuracy for their device.

 

Set default

The set default button is used to restore calibration to the default device settings.

 

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Report options

Image export size

Change the image export size to control the resolution of the image file created when generating a report. The default Reduced resolution option will create a file which is approximately 500kB in size. Reduced resolution reports are likely to have some decrease in image quality as a result of file compression. A full resolution image will use the maximum resolution image available to the device camera when creating the report image. The file may be quite large. This option is only available on the paid version of LineSmarts.

 

Show user details on reports

When the 'Show user details on reports' checkbox is checked the user details, including the 'Operator name', 'Organisation' and 'Contact details', are displayed if available.

 

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General options

Blowout direction

For the purposes of calculating wind load and blowout LineSmarts assumes wind to be acting in the direction perpendicular to the span. The resulting conductor blowout can be displayed for wind blowing in either direction perdendicular to the span. Select Left to display conductor being blown to the left, Right to display conductor blown to the right, or Both to show the conductor blown in both directions.

 

Unit system

Select from between Metric and US Imperial to set the desired unit system.

 

Show help prompts

LineSmarts provides help messages to assist users who are unfamiliar with LineSmarts, with working through its features at a basic level. The messages can be disabled individually. Uncheck this parameter to prevent display of all help message boxes. Check it back to reinitiate the display of all help message boxes.

 

Notify of upgrades

LineSmarts is able to notify users when the app is started if a more recent verion is available on the Google Play Store. Check the Do not show this message again check box to stop the notifications from appearing. Uncheck the box to allow the messages to be provided.

 

WiFi only aerial image download

Downloading aerial images for the location maps will consume a significant amount of data. If you are managing a limited mobile data budget you may wish to check this option to prevent LineSmarts from downloading the images over your mobile data connection.

 

Wire recognition

Note that this option is only available if no wires have already been defined. To automatically identify wires select the wand icon on the top right of the screen, bringing up the automated wire selection page. Then select the touch icon and swipe vertically across all wires to be identified. The software will then attempt to automatically recognise the catenaries in the image. If the identified wires are correct then create the catenaries by selecting the back button on the top left. If only some wires have been accurately identified either the cross can be selected to delete the identified wires and try again or the identified wires can be created by going back and the remaining catenaries can be added manually.

 

Use debug mode

Selecting debug mode currently enables the drawing of a yellow horizontal line perpendicular to the span and some reprojection crosses. It is only intended to assist with debugging the app in some circumstances. Users are unlikely to need to enable this function.

 

Import measurements direct from email

Check this option to import LineSmarts measurements directly from emails. Due to limitations within Android it is not possible to specifically assign the .jpg file (LineSmarts measurement file type) extension files, which are attached to emails, to be opened by LineSmarts. For that reason by checking this option it will also cause LineSmarts to be offered as an option for operations involving other file types. This can be a bit annoying until the correct default options have been selected, so accordingly this option is unchecked by default. However if you are likely to receive LineSmarts measurements by email, checking this option will make opening those measurements easier.

 

Export file type

This field specifies the file extension for LineSmarts measurement export files. LineSmarts allows the export of files with either .jpg or .lsm file extensions. These file extensions are interchangeable and can be manually swapped at any time. LineSmarts will open both file types, as will most image viewing apps. The .lsm file types will not be automatically recognised as an image by most software. Therefore it will need to be opened from within an image app and may not be a permitted file type for some systems or software. The .jpg file type may be preferable; if the image is going to be sent to someone who does not have LineSmarts and may wish to open the file as a photo, if it will be associated with assets in third party data collection software, or if it will be stored in a data management system. Devices are likely to automatically default to opening files with the .jpg file extension using an image app. In cases where export files are going to be shared with other LineSmarts users, the .lsm file extension may be more convenient.

 

LineSmarts folder

LineSmarts folder help.

 

Recalculate everything

Selecting the recalculate everything button causes a recalulation of all measurements and analyses on the device. This recalculation may take a very long time if there are lots of measurements. Usually there should be no reason to recalulate everything, it should generally only be used for debugging purposes.

 

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Catenaries

The Catenaries page summarises and displays all wire measurements for the span being assessed. When the page is opened for the first time for a span there will be no catenary measurements. Select the plus button on the top right of the screen to add catenary measurements.

Results reported

The Results reported drop-down menu allows the user to select the type of information that will be displayed for the wire measurements. If the Load cases option is selected the user can choose to display the position and information relating to specific load cases. If the Maximums option is selected users can choose from several parameters for which LineSmarts will identify the most extreme load case and the associated result.

 

Load case

This field only appears when Load cases is selected in the Results reported field. The drop-down menu allows the user to select from the Surveyed option and the user specified load cases entered under Settings/Loadcase parameters. The load case selected determines which results are displayed in the wires section and the position of the wires drawn over the image. The wires section summarises the Utilisation, Horizontal tension and Maximum sag values for the selected load case. The Surveyed load case reflects the results for the measured conductor.

 

Analysis type

This field only appears when Maximums is selected in the Results reported field. The drop-down menu allows the user to select from several conductor parameters. For the selected conductor parameter, the controlling load case and associated extreme value is displayed for the wires under the wires section. Also the position of the conductor under critical load case is displayed in the image.

 

Wires

The wires section lists the wire tension measurements in the order created. Each wire is given a unique colour which correlates with the results in the Wires section. Select a record to open the applicable Catenary info page for modification of the measurement or to access further results.

 

Other controls

Buttons are provided on the top right of the screen are for help and result export. If the export button is selected it allows the user to create a photo with overlain results which may either be saved to the device hard-drive or sent via email.

 

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Loadcase Parameters

LineSmarts allows the analysis of measured assets under user defined load cases. These load cases are defined under the Settings/Loadcase parameters screen. The user can define as many load cases as they like. The load cases are optimised for defining load cases for limit state design, however users should be able to define most load case regimes using the available parameters. Please let us know at info@linesmarts.com if you are unable to do so, we will try to accommodate alternative design methods.

Name

This field is used to provide a reference name for the load case.

 

Temperature (°C)

The associated conductor temperature for the load case.

 

Wind speed (m/s)

Users can specify either wind speed in m/s or wind pressure in Pascals, and LineSmarts will calculate the other parameter using the equation Wind pressure = 1.2kg/m³ x 0.5 x Wind speed².

 

Wind pressure (Pa)

Users can specify either wind speed in m/s or wind pressure in Pascals, and LineSmarts will calculate the other parameter using the equation Wind pressure = 1.2kg/m³ x 0.5 x Wind speed².

 

Radial ice thickness (mm)

The radial ice thickness is the millimetres radius of ice on the conductor measured from the surface of the conductor to the surface of the ice. This parameter is used to calculate the mass of ice loading and the presented wind area for the ice covered conductor.

 

Ice density (kg/m³)

The density of ice used to calculate the mass of ice loading. The default ice density is 700 kg/m³.

 

Radial snow thickness (mm)

The radial snow thickness is the millimetres radius of snow on the conductor measured from the surface of the conductor to the surface of the snow. This parameter is used to calculate the mass of snow loading and the presented wind area for the snow covered conductor.

 

Snow density (kg/m³)

The density of Snow used to calculate the mass of Snow loading. The default snow density is 400 kg/m³.

 

Snow/Ice drag coefficient

This coefficient can be used to adjust the aerodynamic drag for conductor surfaces modified by snow or ice build up.

 

Conductor weight force load mult.

This factor serves to modify the conductor weight force used in the calculation of conductor tension, sags and structure attachment loads. Factors above 1 will increase the load applied and factors below 1 will decrease it.

 

Tension load mult.

The tension load multiplier is a factor which is used to adjust the calculated conductor tension for the load case. This adjustment affects the calculated conductor utilisation and structure attachment loads.

 

Limit state load type

There are four limit state load types defined; Ultimate, Damage, Serviceability and Vibration. These are used to correlate load cases with applicable material strength coefficients, such as those defined in the conductor library. These limit states broadly follow the definitions given in IEC 60826, the international standard for Design criteria of Overhead transmission lines. For users who are not familiar with that document or are not conversant with the limit state method it is sufficient to realise that these categories may be used to associate a load case with a material strength factor.

 

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Support exclusion zone type

Name

This field is used to provide a reference name for the support exclusion zone type.

 

Exclusion radius (m)

The radial distance about the selected point which a clearance zone shall be displayed.

 

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Conductor exclusion zone type

Name

This field is used to provide a reference name for the conductor exclusion zone type.

 

Exclusion radius (m)

The radial distance about the selected catenary which a clearance zone shall be displayed.

 

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Organisation Subscription

Organisations that wish to purchase licenses in bulk may do by contacting us at info@linesmarts.com. Organisations that purchase organizational licenses will be issued with a 12 digit organizational code which employees can enter in the subscription screen to active the subscription.

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Individual Subscription

Please purchase an annual subscription to access unrestricted use of LineSmarts. To purchase an annual subscription select the Annual subscription button which will take you to a Google Play purchasing window where the purchase can be completed. A LineSmarts subscription will only work on the device on which it has been purchased. A subscription must be purchased for each device. Please direct any queries relating to this policy to info@linesmarts.com.

The subscription will continue until it is cancelled by the user. It can be cancelled from the My Apps screen in the Play Store app. When a subscription is cancelled, Google Play does not offer a refund for the current billing cycle. Instead, the user will have access to the cancelled subscription until the end of the current billing cycle. Once the subscription cancellation takes effect measurements, conductor files and load case files, which are over and above the maximum allowances for non-subscription users, will be retained. They will be displayed in grey, however will not be accessible to the user until another subscription is purchased.

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Ground clearances

Measurement position

The 'Measurement position' drop-down can be set as 'Manual' or 'Minimum'.

If it is set on 'Manual' the ground clearances will be measured at the user-specified span location.

If it is set on 'Minimum' the ground clearance will be calculated in the span location where the clearance is the least.

 

Wires considered

The wires considered drop-down menu allows selection of specific conductors for measurement, or can allow all conductors to be considered, to find the minimum ground clearance.

 

Loadcase

The load case drop-down menu allows the specification of loadcases for the calculation of ground clearances.

Selecting the Minimum clearance setting will direct the analysis to find the user-defined loadcase which produces the minimum ground clearance.

Selecting the Surveyed setting identifies clearances to the conductor whilst in the position in which it was measured by LineSmarts.

Selecting a specific loadcase will return the clearances associated with that loadcase.

 

Select measurement position

Select the image to manually identify the position in the span where ground clearance measurements should be calculated.

 

Conductor

The conductor field in the results section identifies the minimum clearance conductor.

 

Governing loadcase

The governing loadcase field identifies the loadcase which results in the minimum ground clearance.

 

Ground clearance (m)

The ground clearance result is the minimum vertical distance between the ground and the closest conductor.

 

Sag (m)

The sag result indicates the two dimensional conductor sag at the minimum clearance location.

 

Vertical Sag (m)

The vertical sag result indicates conductor sag at the minimum clearance location, in the vertical direction.

 

Horizontal Sag (m)

The horizontal sag result indicates conductor sag at the minimum clearance location, in the horizontal direction.

 

Distance to left pole (m)

The distance to left pole identifies the distance from the left support to the minimum ground clearance span location.

 

Distance to right pole (m)

The distance to right pole identifies the distance from the right support to the minimum ground clearance span location.

 

Other controls

Buttons are provided on the top right of the screen are for help and result export. If the export button is selected it allows the user to create a photo with overlain results which may either be saved to the device hard-drive or sent via email.

 

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Line environment

The line environment feature allows the calculation of clearances from conductors to items in the line environment.

Button '+'

Select the '+' button at the top of the screen to create a new line environment item. Once the '+' button has been selected the user is asked to choose a type of line environment item.

Tree items consist of a base point and one or more vegetation points. The tree items are considered for both falling tree and clearance measurements.

Vegetation and Structure item types are individual points that are only considered for the calculation of clearances. They are not considered in falling tree calculations.

 

Wires considered

The wires considered drop-down menu allows selection of specific conductors for measurement to, or can allow all conductors to be considered when finding the minimum clearance.

 

Results reported

The results reported drop-down menu can either be set as Clearance or Falling tree.

When the Clearance setting is selected the results are shown for the smallest distance between the closest conductor and the items identified in the line environment.

When the Falling tree setting is selected the clearances returned indicate the worst case encroachment of trees falling in a direction perpendicular to the line about the corresponding tree base point, while conductors are in the as surveyed position. When negative wire clearance values are returned this indicates that the falling tree would extend past the wire.

 

Load case

The load case drop-down menu allows specification of load cases to be considered in the calculation of line environment clearances.

Selecting the Minimum clearance setting will direct the analysis to find the user defined loadcase which produces the minimum clearance.

Selecting the Surveyed setting identifies clearances to the conductor whilst in the position measured by LineSmarts. Selecting a specific loadcase will return the clearances associated with that loadcase.

 

Items

Results are shown at the bottom of the page for the user specified line environment items. Select the items for more detailed results and to edit the items.

 

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Tree

Base H. distance (m)

The Base H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to the base of the tree being measured.

 

Base D. distance (m)

The Base D. distance is the direct distance, or slope distance, from the observer to the base of the tree being measured.

 

Locate base point

Select the image to locate the base of the tree being measured. The located point is assumed to be the pivot about which a falling tree will rotate.

 

Tree extent points

A tree extent point is an position in the tree, typically high up the tree or a part of the tree close to the wires, for which clearance is to be calculated. Select the points for more detailed results and to edit.

 

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Tree extent point

Tree extent H. distance (m)

The tree extent H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the tree which is being measured for clearance. Specification of this distance is optional, if it is not entered it is assumed to be the same as the base point distance.

 

Tree extent D. distance (m)

The tree extent D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the tree which is being measured for clearance. Specification of this distance is optional, if it is not entered it is assumed to be the same as the base point distance.

 

Locate tree extent point

To locate the tree extent point touch the image and then select the position of the tree part being measured on the image.

 

Extension from base (m)

The extension from base is the distance between the tree base point and the tree extent point.

 

Wire clearance (m)

The wire clearance result is the distance between the tree extent point and the wire at its closest position.

 

Horizontal wire clearance (m)

Horizontal part of the wire clearance.

 

Vertical wire clearance (m)

Vertical part of the wire clearance.

 

Falling tree (m)

The falling tree result is the distance from the tree extent point to the wire in the surveyed position if the tree falls towards the line about its base point. This result will be negative if the tree extent point falls beyond the wire, suggesting that the falling tree could strike the wire.

 

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Structure point

Structure H. distance (m)

The structure H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the structure which is being measured for clearance.

 

Structure D. distance (m)

The structure D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the structure which is being measured for clearance.

 

Locate structure point

To locate the structure point touch the image and then select the part of the structure being measured.

 

Structure clearance (m)

The structure clearance result is the distance between the structure point and the wire at its closest position.

 

Horizontal structure clearance (m)

Horizontal part of the structure clearance.

 

Vertical structure clearance (m)

Vertical part of the structure clearance.

 

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Vegetation

Vegetation H. distance (m)

The vegetation H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the vegetation which is being measured for clearance.

 

Vegetation D. distance (m)

The vegetation D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the vegetation which is being measured for clearance.

 

Locate vegetation point

To locate the vegetation point touch the image and then select the part of the vegetation being measured on the image.

 

Vegetation clearance (m)

The vegetation clearance result is the distance between the vegetation point and the wire at its closest position.

 

Horizontal vegetation clearance (m)

Horizontal part of the vegetation clearance.

 

Vertical vegetation clearance (m)

Vertical part of the vegetation clearance.

 

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Building

Point A H. distance (m)

The point A H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the building which is being measured for clearance.

 

Point A D. distance (m)

The point A D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the building which is being measured for clearance.

 

Point B H. distance (m)

The point B H. distance is the horizontal distance from the observer to a point on the building which is being measured for clearance.

 

Point B D. distance (m)

The point B D. distance is the direct, or slope, distance from the observer to a point on the building which is being measured for clearance.

 

Horizontal line?

This option may be used in situations where the linear feature being measured is known to be horizontal and it is difficult to measure the distance to the far end of the building. Selecting this option means the distance to only one of the points on the building is required. When using this option the accuracy of the clearance measurement will be very sensitive to the accuracy of the acceleromer calibration. Ensure that LineSmarts is accurately displaying vertical and horizontal lines if selecting this option. It will generally be more accurate to input distances to points at both ends of the building.

 

Feature type

For buildings LineSmarts allows line and wall feature types. Both are defined by two points between which a line is drawn. The wall feature type calculates clearances on the basis that a wall extends beneath the line in a vertical plane. The line feature type calculates clearances to the line only. A line feature may be more appropriate for a feature that juts out from a wall, like the edge of a roof.

 

Locate building points

To locate the building points tap on the image and then select two points on a linear element of the building using the A and B buttons to alternate between the points.

 

Building clearance (m)

The building clearance result is the minimum distance between the building and the wire.

 

Horizontal building clearance (m)

The horizontal component of the building clearance.

 

Vertical building clearance (m)

The vertical component of the building clearance.

 

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Location

Markers on the aerial image show the positions of the observer (yellow), the left support (red) and the right support (blue), if they are known. Tap on the image to navigate within it or to modify the positions.

Span heading (°)

This field shows the orientation of the span in degrees from geographic north. The measurement relies on a compass and GPS position being recorded, so the field will be blank if either measurement cannot not be obtained. The measurement cannot be performed if the device is missing compass or GPS hardware. The GPS reading may fail if it unable to resolve a fix on the available satellites.

 

Left support - Latitude (°)

The latitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Left support - Longitude (°)

The longitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Left support - Altitude (m)

The altitude is specified as distance above the WGS 84 reference ellipsoid.

 

Right support - Latitude (°)

The latitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Right support - Longitude (°)

The longitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Right support - Altitude (m)

The altitude is specified as distance above the WGS 84 reference ellipsoid.

 

Observer - Latitude (°)

The latitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Observer - Longitude (°)

The longitude is unprojected and use the WGS84 ellipsoid.

 

Observer - Altitude (m)

The altitude is specified as distance above the WGS 84 reference ellipsoid.

 

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Locations

On this screen markers on the aerial image show the positions of the observer (yellow), the left support (red) and the right support (blue), if they are known. The image can be panned with a swiping movement and can be zoomed or rotated using multitouch input.

The positions of the markers may not always be accurate. Generally this will occur because of inaccuracy in the gps location or compass bearing measurement. The gps location and the compass orientation can be adjusted. To adjust the gps location long press on the observer (on the supports will also work) and move the marker to the correct location. To adjust the orientation select the rotation icon at the top of the screen and then drag the yellow line around until the supports are at the correct orientation.

Inaccuraciy of support location may also occur if the user has not inputted the correct support ranges, has incorrectly identified the supports in the image, or if the LineSmarts image calibration is not accurate.

Markers may not be displayed; if the gps location was not recorded; the user has not specified the support range; and/or the user has not specified the position of the support within the image. If only the support range has been inputted a semi-circle with a radius equal to range is displayed on the aerial image to indicate potential support locations. This line is red or blue respectively for the left and right supports. If only the support position in the image has been inputted, a line is displayed on the aerial image in the direction of the support, to indicate potential support locations. This line is red or blue respectively for the left and right supports. If neither the support position in the image nor the support range has been specified no information will be displayed for that support. In these instances the markers can be added by selecting the plus icon at the top of the window and then tapping the support position within the image. By default the new marker locations will remain consistent with user specified ranges and support locations in the image. These default settings that force the marker positions to remain consistent with the other infromation inputted by the user can be modified using the lock settings which are found under the menu in the top right corner.

The 'Lock left distance' and 'Lock right distance' settings will automatically be enabled if the user has inputted a range to the support. Enabling this setting restricts the positions available for the left to those which are a radius around the observer equal to the specified range. Unlocking this setting will allow the marker for the support to be moved any distance from the observer. Adjusting that distance will change the range displayed on the span info screen, the calculated span distance, and other results influenced by the change in span geometry.

The 'Lock left heading' and 'Lock right heading' settings will automatically be enabled if the user has specified the position of the support in the span image. Enabling this setting restricts the positions available for the support to those which are on a line in the specified direction. Unlocking this setting will allow the marker for the support to be moved in any direction. Adjusting the heading will change the selected support position within the span image, the calculated span distance, and other results influenced by the change in span geometry.

'Reset Locations' — selecting the Reset Locations options will restore the support locations to ones which represent the original device position and orientation, and user inputted support ranges and positions within the image.

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Experience

LineSmarts' experience/training feature is currently only available to organisational subscribers. It has been designed to provide users with a comprehensive introduction to the use of LineSmarts, and a means to monitor and record training.

Training level

LineSmarts currently specifies six levels of training (Beginner, Novice, Apprentice, Intermediate, Proficient, Professional) with the new user starting as a beginner. Users can progress through the levels by using the App which allows the accumulation of experience points (XP), by completing the listed prerequisite tasks and by completing the exercises. After each exercise has been completed a physical certificate will be issued to the user if requested to demonstrate that the level of training has been achieved. For someone using the app each day it should be simple to progress through the first couple of levels within a week for each level. The subsequent levels will take longer to obtain. Note that the check boxes used to indicate that a video has been watched are intended to be manually checked by the user. This allows users to watch the video on a larger screen if they prefer. It is possible for the user to check the box without watching the video. We don't recommend it, you won't learn that way...

 

Current total XP

The Current total XP is the total number of experience points accumulated. Experience points can be accrued by using LineSmarts. Points can be accrued just by opening the app each day, but the fastest way to earn points is by using the app to take measurements, analyse them, and share them with other users. Points accrue at a faster rate if the user has attended an in-person training session. If the app has not been used for a period of 10 days the number of points will slowly decay, this is to reflect the reduction in skill that occurs with lack of practice.

 

Today's XP

The Today's XP field shows the number of XP earned in a given day.

 

Last server data exhchange

If this field presents data was unable to be exchanged with the server. Experience points may be incorrectly calculated if a server connection cannot be established. To resolve this issue ensure that the device has a connection to the internet.

 

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Support measurement

The support measurement tool allows users to measure physical dimensions of power poles or other types of support structures. The tool includes several preset measurements, including Pole, Pole top diameter, Pole base diameter, Crossarm and a General measurement function. To complete these measurements the support range and its position within the image must have already been defined for the support being measured on the Span info screen. The calculations will not be performed otherwise. Only the support lean calculation can be completed without the range being defined.

Pole
The Pole measurement requires the user to select centre points at the top and bottom of the pole. From these points LineSmarts calculates the height of the pole above its base, the obvserved angle of its lean and the displacement of the top of the pole from its nominal vertical position.

Pole top The pole top measurement allows the pole top diameter to be measured. To perform the measurement select two points either side of the pole at its top. This measurement is in the plane perpendicular to the observer and so is suited to measuring the diameter of round poles.

Pole base
The pole base measurement like the pole top measurement, allows the pole base diameter to be measured.

Crossarm
The Pole points must be defined before the crossarm calculations will be completed. The crossarm measurement is based on crossarm points identified by the user at either end of the crossarm. It calculated the width of the crossare and its height. The calculation will be most accurate if the photo is taken at rightangles to the crossarm however crossarm measurements can be made from other angles on the basis of the assumption that the crossarm is straight and oriented perpendicular to the pole. For this reason it is important that the point selected on the crossarm is consistent in its vertical position (eg at the bottom, centre or top of the crossarm at both ends). Multiple crossarm measurements can be made. The crossarm height is calaculated as the height at which the pole line intersects with the line between the crossarm end points.

General
The general measurement can be made between any two points on a structure. It can measure the slope, horizontal distance, vertical distance and direct distance between user defined points. The tool can be used to measure any number of things including, attachment height, height between cross-arms, cross-arm dimensions, equipment dimensions and phase spacing. The measurements are based on the assumption that the photo has been taken at right angles to the direction of the support lean and the horizontal dimension being measured if applicable. For example if phase spacing is to be measured accurately the cross-arm must be square on to the observer. Multiple general measurements can be made.

Locate support points

Tap list item to define two points between which you wish to measure. Selection of the two points can be made by alternating between the buttons for Point A and Point B on the top right of the window. Once the points have been defined select the back button on the top right to return to the support measurement window.

 

Support ID

The support identificatier is taken from the field defined on the Span info screen.

 

Notes

This field can be used to record notes about a support or measurement.

 

Height (m)

The two dimensional height, on the vertical plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Width (m)

The two dimensional width, on the vertical plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Diameter (mm)

The two dimensional width, on the vertical plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Lean (°)

The angle from the vertical direction of the line between Point A and Point B on the plane at right angles to the observer.

 

Length (m)

The two dimensional length, on the vertical plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Vertical length (m)

The vertical length, in the plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Horizontal length (m)

The vertical length, in the plane at right angles to the observer, between Point A and Point B.

 

Displacement (m)

displacement

 

Other controls

Buttons are provided on the top right of the screen are for help and result export. If the export button is selected it allows the user to create a photo with overlain results which may either be saved to the device hard-drive or sent via email.

 

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Support exclusion zones

Support ID

The support ID is specified on the Survey info screen.

 

Notes

This field can be used to record notes about a support exclusion zone.

 

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Support exclusion zone

Point H. distance (m)

The Support exclusion zone page has a field where the distance to the exclusion zone may be specified. If it is not specified the distance will be assumed to be the same as to the structure, which should generally be reasonably correct. The field label wil show Point D. distance or Point H. distance to indicate direct or horizontal distance measurements respectively, depending on the distance input type selected on the Survey info page.

 

Point distance (m)

The Support exclusion zone page has a field where the distance to the exclusion zone may be specified. If it is not specified the distance will be assumed to be the same as to the structure, which should generally be reasonably correct. The field label wil show Point D. distance or Point H. distance to indicate direct or horizontal distance measurements respectively, depending on the distance input type selected on the Survey info page.

 

Zone type

Use this field to select the user defined support exclusion zone type and associated exclusion zone radius.

 

Locate exclusion zone point

Tap on the image to select the centre point about which the exclusion zone will be drawn.

 

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Conductor exclusion zone

Zone type

The conductor exclusion zone type allows selection of the pre-set zone type which in turn changes the radius of the displayed exclusion zone. The conductor exclusion zones can be specified under settings.

 

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